Monday, September 3, 2012

Chapter 1 & 3

      Ch.1 Rethinking Computers 
and Instruction
Reflection Question 1. Must I use a inquiry-based learning approach in my classroom to use computers as a tool?

No, an inquiry-based approach does not have to be used, even though inquiry-based learning is beneficial because it utilizes computers to teach children problem solving skills for  K-12th grade that can help students become critical thinkers. Children are teacher guided in a self-directed approach in solving real world task. This approach will help children as they learn more and more to think independently and to also work together with a group.

Reflection Activity: As a part of your education program, you have studied a number of instructional approaches. Make a list of three to five of these approaches and then describe how you might use computers with each approach or why it would not be beneficial.
1. Direct Instruction Approach 
       "...strategy is highly teacher-directed and is among the most commonly used. This strategy includes methods such as lecture, didactic questioning, explicit teaching, practice and drill, and demonstrations. The direct instruction strategy is effective for providing information or developing step-by-step skills. This strategy also works well for introducing other teaching methods, or actively involving students in knowledge construction."

       With direct instruction, teachers may use a computer to project a power point presentation to the children. The power point can explain exactly what the students are expected to memorize. The presentation may include pictures for illustration points or can contain key words to remember. Links to videos may be added to the power point.

       An example of a direct instruction approach using a computer is given in the textbook, Integrating  Computer Technology in the Classroom on page 4. The 9th grade class were completing a practice and drill exercise on computers to learn the human skeleton. Once the teacher has instructed what is to be memorized, the visual picture on the computer screen of the skeletal parts may be beneficial during student memorization.

2. Interactive Instruction Approach
       "...relies heavily on discussion and sharing among participants. The interactive instruction strategy allows for a range of groupings and interactive methods. These may include total class discussions, small group discussions or projects, or student pairs or triads working on assignments together."

       An example of interactive learning is found in the textbook, Integrating  Computer Technology in the Classroom on page 58. During a language arts class, an electric whiteboard is facilitated to design a book report concept map. One student at a whiteboard was taking class suggestions of changes to the map. Another student is typing on a lap top to enter information on the whiteboard about the book Because of Winn Dixie. Students take turns sharing different parts of the story.

3. Experimental Learning Approach
        "inductive, learner centered, and activity oriented. The emphasis in experiential learning is on the process of learning and not on the product. Personalized reflection about an experience and the formulation of plans to apply learning to other contexts are critical factors in effective experiential learning. Experiential learning greatly increases understanding and retention in comparison to methods that solely involve listening, reading, or even viewing..." ...Students are usually more motivated when they actively participate and teach one another by describing what they are doing."

       An example of experimental learning is found in the textbook, Integrating  Computer Technology in the Classroom on page 58. Student groups create student tutorials by comparing and editing work with others. They are examining their lives and that of kids in the colonial era.

Reflection Question 2. Can I still use tutorials and drill-and-practice software?
       Yes, tutorials and drill-and-practice software may still be used, but they should be limited. Tutorials and drill-and-practice software only feed children information. They teach children how to do something such as how to work out a math problem, play a learning game, or learn the parts of a human skeleton. 

Reflection Activity: Answer this question in the broader scope of your teaching style—what are the benchmarks you will address, and what is the topic you will teach? 
 Kindergarten benchmarks in Math (topic):
(computer tools that can be used in these activities are a white board and large calculators).

1st benchmark: Count objects and use numbers to express quantity.

2nd benchmark: Use number notation and place value up to 20. 

3rd benchmark: Compare numbers up to 10.

4th benchmark: Know addition is putting together and subtraction as breaking apart.

5th benchmark: Compose and decompose numbers 2 to 10.

Reflection Question 3. Won't I have to spend a great deal of time to develop these units of instruction?
This particular unit of instruction will not take much time as children will do most of the writing on white boards and use calculators when needed. Mostly children will manipulation objects
such a oranges, apples, etc. to count. 

Reflection Activity: Identify three to five lessons that you might teach each year and would only need to do minor updates in order to teach them again.

While using a white board students should be able to draw objects, numbers and signs. Also, by using a voice thread they can share strategies with one another to learn these lessons. Math Lesson Number Learning:

Lesson1-Count objects and use numbers to express quantity.

-Student should be able to count to 25. Then he or she should explain how many counted group objects.
-Numerals 1 to 25 should be read aloud then the numerals should be matched with the numbers used in counting.
-1 to 25 should be placed in proper sequence.
-Count to 20 by twos.
-Recognize and use ordinal number (such as first, fourth, last). Ex. The fourth bat is about to fly.

Lesson 2-Use number notation and place value up to 20.
Understand that numbers 1 through 9 represent "ones."

Understand that numbers 11 through 19 consist of one "ten" and some "ones."
Lesson 3-Compare numbers up to 10
-Compare sets of 10 or fewer objects and identify which are equal to, more than, or less than others. Compare by matching and by counting. Use picture graphs to illustrate quantities being compared.
-Recognize zero as the count of "no objects." Zero is the answer to "how many are left?" when all of a collection of objects has been taken away. Ex. Zero is the number of apples left after 7 apples are removed from a basket that contains 7 apples.

Lesson 4: Know addition is putting together and subtraction as breaking apart.

-Add and subtract single-digit numbers that have a total or difference between 0 and 10.  ex. Write expressions such as 5 + 2 or 7 - 3 to represent situations involving sums or differences of numbers less than 10.

-Understand "add" as "put together" or "add onto" and solve addition problems with numbers less than 10 whose totals are less than 20.

 1. The children should Understand the  
    meaning of addition problems phrased in 
    different ways to reflect how people 
    actually speak. 
 2. Use fingers and objects to add. 
 3. Attach correct names to objects being 
    added. (Even more important when objects 
    are different). ex. The sum of 5 pears 
    and 7 mangos equals a total of 12 fruits.

-Understand "subtract" as "break apart" or "take away" and solve subtraction problems using numbers between 1 and 10. Understand the meaning of addition problems phrased in different ways to reflect how people actually speak. Example: 7 – 3 equals the number of buttons left after 3 buttons are removed from a box that contains 7 buttons. Recognize subtraction situations involving missing addends and comparison. Use fingers, objects, and addition facts to solve subtraction problems.

-Express addition and subtraction of numbers between 1 and 10 in stories and drawings. Translate such stories and drawings into numerical expressions such as 7 + 2 or
10 – 8. Model, demonstrate (act out), and solve stories that illustrate addition and subtraction.

Lesson 5: Compose and decompose numbers 
2 to 10.
Understand that numbers greater than 2 can be decomposed in several different ways.

Decomposition and composition of single-digit numbers into other single-digit numbers is of fundamental importance to develop meaning for addition and subtraction.
Example: 5 = 4 + 1 = 3 + 2; 10 = 9 + 1 = 8 + 2 = 7 + 3 = 6 + 4 =
5 + 5. Recognize 6 through 10 as "five and some ones." This is an important special case because of its relation to finger counting. Example: 6 = 5 + 1; 7 = 5 + 2; 8 = 5 + 3; 9 = 5 + 4; 10 = 5 + 5.

Reflection Question 4:Won't every student need a computer to use it as a tool?
It would be ideal for every student to have a computer (more than one white board in the room and instruction of how to use voice thread will be needed), but not necessary as paper and pencil and other counting tools can be facilitated (objects to count etc. may be more effective).

Reflection Activity: Consider a classroom with only 1 computer and classroom with 10 computers. How would you utilize the computer(s) with a class of 25 students? What is your definition of technology integration—that is, what docs technology integration mean to you? It would be more ideal if every student had his or her own computer, but if this is not possible then students can work in groups in which they can manipulate mathematical programs that are on the kindergarten level together. This can help them learn skills of working with others, but it will be a challenge for them to learn critical thinking with others to help them.
Technology integration is utilizing the computer information systems to teach children concepts that are vital for their future success in the working world.

Lowther, D. L. & Morrison, G. R. (2010). Integrating computer technology into the classroom: Skills for the classroom. (4th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Inc.
Children  at Computers Clip Art:,r:50,s:196,i:92&tx=89&ty=105

Ch. 3 Digital Tools in Today's Classrooms

Reflection Question 1. Why is it important to learn about different technology tools when they are constantly changing?

The simple fact that technology is constantly changing is an even greater reason to keep up to date with the changes that are occurring. It is the only way to be an effective teacher to today's youth.

Reflection Activity:This chapter presents a wide variety of digital tools that are used in todays classroom. To help you understand relationships  among the tools, create a chart that shows key basic functions of each category of digital tools discussed in the chapter.

Relection Question 2. Most desktop computers do the same thinks as mobile devices, so why do teachers need to use both?

Reglection Activity: Review the "Pro" section for mobile devices and computers. Write a summary of the benefits that mobile devices have over nonmobile technology tools.

Digital Tool
Basic Functions

Desktop Computer

Advantages of a desktop computer, as compared to a laptop computer:
• Desktop computers have more power and more features.
• Desktop computers are easier, and less expensive, to upgrade.
• Desktop computers are generally less expensive overall and offer a better overall value.
• Desktop computers have a more comfortable keyboard and a much easier to use mouse. It should be noted that an aftermarket large, comfortable mouse and mouse pad are also possible with a laptop.
• Desktop computers have larger monitors.
• Desktop computers are generally easier, and less expensive, to repair.
• Desktop computers have a lower risk of theft, which means less chance of losing your data and having to pay to replace your computer.

All-In-One Computer
all-in-one desktop combines the traditional tower desktop, monitor and peripherals (like the camera, speakers and microphone) into one sleek, compact package that does it all. No tangled cords, less clutter, amazing performance and beautiful simplicity. It does more and has better performance than most laptops.


Advantages of a laptop computer, as compared to a desktop computer:

• Laptop computers are highly portable and allow you to use your computer almost anywhere.
• Easily transportable
• Laptop computers take up less room on a desk or table and can be put away when not in use.
• Laptop computers have a single cord to contend with, rather than the multiple cords associated with desktop computer use.
Digital Media Players/Recorders
personal video recorder (PVR), is a consumer electronics device or application software that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card or other local or networked mass storage device. The term includes set-top boxes (STB) with direct to disk recording facility, portable media players (PMP) with recording, recorders (PMR) as camcorders that record onto Secure Digital memory cards and software for personal computers which enables video capture and playback to and from a hard disk drive.
Digital Cameras
digital camera functions much the same way a traditional camera does.
*It has all the essential parts, lens cover, lens and aperture. The inside of the camera has to function a little differently to generate in image, however. A digital camera actually makes an electronic recording of the image created by light entering into the camera body. A computer chip registers the information as a series of ones and zeros--just like on a regular PC computer, for example. A digital camera can translate electronic information into pixels. Pixels are simply collections of digital squares all scrambled around. You can think of pixels like pieces of a puzzle. How clear a picture might be depends on the resolution, which refers to the degree of detail that can be found in a digital image.
  *electronic version of a text that can
be read on a standard desktop or laptop screen, on a PDA or other
portable device, or on dedicated e-book hardware. E-books can
use many different file formats, though they all share certain characteristics:
they are portable, transferable, and searchable. Electronic
media can also incorporate other features, such as annotations,
audio and video files, and hyperlinks.
  *include commenting and chat tools that allow interaction among readers,
and some let users add links to external resources. Some e-book
projects are tied to proprietary software, while others provide
e-books in formats such as HTML.
GPS Navigation Receivers

*contains all types of maps, like streets maps, which may be displayed in human readable format via text or in a graphical format
*provides suggested directions to a human in charge of a vehicle or vessel via text or speech
*provides directions directly to an autonomous vehicle such as a robotic probe
*provides information on traffic conditions (either via historical or real time data) and suggesting alternative directions
*provides information on nearby amenities such as restaurants, fueling stations, etc.
Graphing Calculators
·*capable of plotting graphs, solving simultaneous equations, and performing numerous other tasks with variables. Most popular graphing calculators are also programmable, allowing the user to create customized programs, typically for scientific/engineering and education applications. Due to their large displays intended for graphing, they can also accommodate several lines of text and calculations at a time.
Personal Data Assistants
Nearly all PDAs include standard organizer features, such as an appointment calendar and task list. Some models come with a broader suite of software programs already installed, while others offer optional additional programs, often for an additional price. Many PDAs can even function like a mini-computer, allowing users to make last minute changes to documents or other files while traveling. There are mobile versions of some of the most popular office productivity software, as well as a number of applications (apps) specifically designed for mobile use. With flash memory card capability, a PDA can usually store, access, and transfer virtually any kind of data, including maps, spreadsheets, presentations, and more.
Personal Response Systems
   *SMART Response LE interactive response systemDesigned for learners in early education and those with special needs, SMART Response LE features simple and colorful remotes that enable students to respond to a variety of question types using easy-to-understand symbols.

*SMART Response PE interactive response systemIdeal for most K–12 classrooms, SMART Response PE includes wireless remotes (or clickers) and powerful assessment software that can deliver formative and summative assessments using a variety of question types.

*Keystone Correction
*Contrast Controls
*Brightness Controls
*Color Controls
*Tint Controls
*Sharpness Controls
*Gamma Correction
*Color Temperature Controls
*RGB Contrast and Brightness Controls
*Projection Methods
*Digital Zoom
*Lens Shift

Watch mode Whiteboard function To draw:

  1. Open the Whiteboard panel.
  2. Select the desired tool.
  3. Draw in the Instant Meeting window. 

    Show mode Whiteboard functions:
    The Show mode participant can turn on the Whiteboard at any time to freeze the screen and add their own drawings.
  4. Click On in the Whiteboard panel. The screen is frozen.
  5. Select the desired tool.
  6. Use the selected tool to draw on your screen.

Multifunction printers generally include a scanning bed for scanning images. These scanning beds, which can be anywhere from 8.5 x11 to 14x17--or even larger in some cases--scan documents to be saved as digital files.

*FaxingFaxing is another feature on the vast majority of multifunction printers. Since these printers can scan and copy documents, it only makes sense that they can fax them. In order to send a fax with your printer you'll need to make sure it is connected to a phone line

Copying is one of the most useful functions of multifunction printers. No longer is it necessary to own a copy machine because a simple printer will do the job easily. Some multifunction printers can even go above and beyond simple copying and do things like collate, hole punch, staple and fold without you ever having to touch a piece of paper.

*Sending scanned files (Network Scanner)
Scan files can be sent to or stored on a computer, and you can specify the format of a scan file according to how the file will be used.

*Sending by e-mailYou can send scan files to specified e-mail addresses.

*Sending to foldersScan files can be stored in shared network folders, or on FTP or Netware servers.

*Sending using WSD You can use Web Services on Devices (WSD) to send scan files to another computer.
Science Probes
*devices that are easily connected to classroom computers as part of a CBL (calculator-based lab). In a CBL environment, students collect data about the environment, and then they use software (called probeware) that allows them to present, store, or manipulate this data. This data can be presented in charts, graphs and tables. This page presents an overview of the components of a typical CBL so as to make you aware of the learning opportunities that CBLs can create.
*For the establishment of video links, permitting computers to act as videophones or video conference stations. The common use as a video camera for the World Wide Web gave the webcam its name. Other popular uses include security surveillance, computer vision, video broadcasting, and for recording social videos.

*Webcams are known for their low manufacturing cost and flexibility